Neurodevelopmental Disorder Assessments

Neurodevelopmental Disorder Assessments

What are neurodevelopmental disorders?

Definition
Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of heterogeneous conditions characterized by delay or disturbance in the acquisition of skills in a variety of developmental domains, including motor, social, language, and cognition.
The great diversity of neurodevelopmental disorders is reflected in the fact that some of those affected show specific deficits (e.g., difficulty maintaining focus) that do not prevent them from having an independent and fulfilling life. Others, however, will need lifelong assistance with basic living skills necessary for independent living, such as the ability to walk and feed oneself.

What causes neurodevelopmental disorders?

Although the aetiology remains unknown in many cases, various factors can affect normal brain development. Causes can be classified as follows:

  • Genetic causes: for example, genetic mutations and metabolic conditions at conception.

  • Prenatal causes: such as nutritional deficiencies and maternal infections during pregnancy.

  • Perinatal causes: for example, those due to complications that arise during labor, typically a lack of oxygen (hypoxia).

  • Postnatal causes: refer to factors such as traumatic brain injury, infections like meningitis or exposure to environmental toxins after birth.

Types of neurodevelopmental disorders

The category of neurodevelopmental disorders, as set out in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), includes:

  • Intellectual Disabilities

• Communication disorders (e.g. Speech, language disorder)

• Autism spectrum disorder

• Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

• Specific learning disorder

• Motor disorders (e.g. tic and Tourette’s disorder)


Treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders

Treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders will depend largely on the type of disorder and the predominant symptoms in each individual.

Essentially, treatment can be divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, the latter being the one with the greatest number of options at present.

Non-pharmacological interventions include behavioral therapy, psychosocial support and neuropsychological rehabilitation, among other options that stimulate skills that the individual has not developed adequately, in addition to offering the necessary support to live a meaningful life.

Please contact Manor Clinic to get more information about Neurodevelopmental Disorder Assessments.

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